Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

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Patent applications, per year
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office.
Source: World Development Indicators

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Total R&D personnel per million inhabitants (FTE)
All persons employed directly on R&D, as well as those providing direct services such as R&D managers, administrators and clerical staff during a given year expressed as a proportion of a population of one million. Full-time equivalence (FTE) R&D data are a measure of the actual volume of human resources devoted to R&D and are especially useful for international comparisons. One full-time equivalent may be thought of as one person-year. In other words, 1 FTE is equal to 1 person working full-time on R&D for a period of 1 year, or more persons working part-time or for a shorter period, corresponding to one person-year. Thus, a person who normally spends 30% of time on R&D and the rest on other activities (such as teaching, university administration and student counselling) should be considered as 0.3 FTE. Similarly, if a full-time R&D worker is employed at an R&D unit for only six months, this results in an FTE of 0.5.
Researchers per million inhabitants (FTE)
Number of professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, as well as in the management of these projects during a given year expressed as a proportion of a population of one million. Full-time equivalence (FTE) R&D data are a measure of the actual volume of human resources devoted to R&D and are especially useful for international comparisons. One full-time equivalent may be thought of as one person-year. In other words, 1 FTE is equal to 1 person working full-time on R&D for a period of 1 year, or more persons working part-time or for a shorter period, corresponding to one person-year. Thus, a person who normally spends 30% of time on R&D and the rest on other activities (such as teaching, university administration and student counselling) should be considered as 0.3 FTE. Similarly, if a full-time R&D worker is employed at an R&D unit for only six months, this results in an FTE of 0.5.
Technicians per million inhabitants
Number of persons whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of engineering, physical and life sciences, or social sciences and humanities (they participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers) during a given year expressed as a proportion of a population of one million.
Enrolment in tertiary education per 100,000 inhabitants, both sexes
Individuals officially registered in a given educational programme, or stage or module thereof, regardless of age.
Government expenditure per tertiary student (US$)
Average total (current, capital and transfers) general government expenditure per student in the given level of education, expressed in nominal US$ at market exchange rates.
Source: UNESCO

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Pupil-teacher ratio in tertiary education (headcount basis)
Average number of pupils per teacher at a given level of education, based on headcounts of both pupils and teachers. A high pupil-teacher ratio suggests that each teacher has to be responsible for a large number of pupils. In other words, the higher the pupil/teacher ratio, the lower the relative access of pupils to teachers. It is generally assumed that a low pupil-teacher ratio signifies smaller classes, which enables the teacher to pay more attention to individual students, which may in the long run result in a better performance of the pupils.